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Basic approaches to the simulation of sensual/intellectual cognitive abilities, such as problem solving, pattern recognition, constructing knowledge representations, learning, etc. have been presented in previous parts of the book.
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Let us recall that the view that certain abilities are inborn is called nativism.
Let us recall that such a view is called genetic empiricism.
We have introduced such concept trees in the form of semantic networks representing ontologies in Sect. 7.1.
Aquinas defines appetite as “all forms of internal inclination”.
This distinction was adopted by European scholastic philosophy from Islamic philosophy. Ibn Sina, Avicenna (980–1037) already used both concepts: intellectus in habitu ( al-’aql bi-l-malakah) and intellectus adeptus ( al-’aql al-mustafâd). Then, these concepts were adopted and reinterpreted by scholastics (St. Albertus Magnus, St. Thomas Aquinas).
Adding also that sometimes “ the separate substances that we call angels are called intelligences”.
An evaluation of a perception w.r.t. the interests of a perceiver is performed by animals by natural instinct. In the case of animals we talk about (natural) estimative power ( vis aestimativa).
Let us recall that such a view is called methodological rationalism (apriorism).
If Leibniz had succeeded, then philosophers, instead of disputing, would formulate their opinions with the help of ars characteristica and then compute a solution. It seems to the author that it is better that Leibniz never completed his research.
Let us recall that such a view is called methodological empiricism.
Empirical propositions in physics, chemistry, biology, etc. are synthetic propositions a posteriori. However, from the point of view of logic these propositions are uncertain.
Kant considered mathematical propositions (e.g., theorems) to be synthetic propositions a priori.
Transcendental means here transcending experience.
Kant defined twelve such categories.
The Vienna Circle was an influential group of philosophers, mathematicians, and physicists founded in 1920s. Its best-known members were, among others Kurt Gödel, Rudolph Carnap, Moritz Schlick, and Otto Neurath.
The issue of such a language had already been of great importance for William of Ockham and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz mentioned above.
A language-game consists of a sequence of expressions and actions in a certain context. For example, the dialogue of a man and a woman in case he wants to pick her up or the conversation of a professor and a student during an exam at a university. Thus, our life can be treated as a sequence of language-games. Each language-game is characterized by its specific grammar, just as each game is characterized by its specific rules.
A formal system is consistent if it does not contain a contradiction.
A formal system is complete if for any sentence belonging to the system either the sentence or its negation is provable in this system.
In this section we describe selected psychological models of intelligence. A selection is made with respect to further discussion of the concept of artificial intelligence. Studies of intelligence in psychology can be found e.g., in [108, 290, 291].
Charles Edward Spearman—a professor of psychology at University College London. He is also known for his contribution to statistics (Spearman’s rank correlation).
Spearman used the term noegenetic with reference to the Platonian notion noesis, which was introduced in the previous section. Let us recall that noesis means intuitive direct cognition via an insight into the heart of the matter .
Here, eduction means discovering something, from Latin: educere.
In this case, pronouncing judgments by defining relations.
Alfred Binet—a professor of psychology at the Sorbonne, a director of the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology at the Sorbonne (1891–1894). He is known as the inventor of the first intelligence test (the IQ test).
Apart from designers of generic cognitive architectures.
Linda Susanne Gottfredson—a professor of educational psychology at the University of Delaware and a sociologist. She is known for the public statement Mainstream Science of Intelligence signed by 51 researchers, in which she claims that mental skills are different for various races (statistically).
Louis Leon Thurstone—a professor of psychology at the University of Chicago and a mechanical engineer (master’s in mechanical engineering from Cornell University). One of the fathers of psychometrics and psychophysics. He was the President of the American Psychological Association.
A note on Jean Piaget has been included in the previous chapter, in which we have discussed notions of assimilation and accommodation and their influence on the concept of agent.
Specific manipulation develops from 8 months.
A note on Edward L. Thorndike, a pioneer of the connectionist approach, has been included in Sect. 3.1.
Joy Paul Guilford—a professor of psychology at the University of Southern California. His work mainly concerns the psychometric study of intelligence. He has carried out research for developing classification testing for the U.S. Air Force. He was the President of the Psychometric Society.
Guilford’s model is three-dimensional. Apart from the process dimension it contains a content dimension (types of information which are used by processes) and a product dimension (results of applying processes to specific contents). Later, Guilford extended his model, cf. Guilford J.P.: Some changes in the structure of intellect model. Educational and Psychological Measurement 48 (1988), 1–4.
In cognitive psychology, the concept of knowledge is related to the content of long-term memory.
If controlling is performed with feedback, then we deal with learning.
Robert Jeffrey Sternberg—a professor of psychology at Yale University, Tufts University, and Oklahoma State University, a Ph.D. student of Gordon H. Bower at Stanford University. He was the President of the American Psychological Association. Sternberg is also known for the triangular theory of love.
- Theories of Intelligence in Philosophy and Psychology
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