Administrative accountability is sometimes referred to (rather misleadingly) as ‘horizontal’, to distinguish it from what is perceived to be a more vertical relationship between state and society entailed by political accountability (see Chapter 2). Horizontal accountability occurs when one part of the state is entitled to explanation (answerability) from another on which it can impose sanctions if not satisfied (enforceability). So administrative agencies (ministries, departments, bureaux, boards) are answerable to ministers and legislatures, sometimes via regulatory bodies, auditors, anticorruption commissions, and ombudsmen. Within agencies, management hierarchies are made up from chains of command and control entailing internal accountability of public servants to their superiors. The judiciary then subjects both political and administrative decisions to judicial review.
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- Transparent and Accountable Public Administration
B. C. Smith
- Macmillan Education UK
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