Transport (including ‘virtual’ transport through telecommunications) connects people inhabiting cities. It gives urban households essential access to jobs, services and social contacts; it gives urban firms and other organizations essential access to employees, consumers, business relations and goods. It thus holds the spatially fragmented everyday world of urban households and organizations together and is an essential component of their social emancipation and economic prosperity. Accordingly, the attractiveness of cities and neighbourhoods as places to live, work and spend leisure time also and fundamentally depends on the quality of the access they give to other places. The accessibility provided by transport and telecommunications is therefore also an essential ingredient of the quality of place. Urban planning has tended to see places as selfenclosed and to engage with their permanent populations (such as residents). However, the intrinsically mobile nature of our societies and cities requires urban planning to see places as open and also to engage with their temporary populations (such as commuters and other visitors). This chapter introduces conceptual and practical tools for this purpose. The de-coupling of civitas and urbs The object of urban planning is, by definition, ‘the city’. Today, however, we need to ask: what, where and when is ‘the city’?
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