After the end of the Cold War, contradictory trends in warfare became apparent. For many scholars during the 1990s, the demise of the Soviet Union had brought about a new world order in which international politics had taken on a more optimistic shape. Some scholars even expressed the sentiment that war itself had been unlearnt and had passed into history alongside other arcane practices such as duelling and slavery (Mueller 1995). It became commonplace to argue that hard military power had been replaced by ‘soft’ forms power (Keohane and Nye 1998). Thus it appeared the scholarly community was hopeful that peaceful modes of transformations would dominate international relations (IR). However, any idea that war had gone away proved illusory. Throughout the 1990s, civil and ethnic wars proliferated across the globe.
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- Ways of War in the Twenty-First Century
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