The twenty-first century has so far been characterized by turbulent and unpredictable change and disruption - a world of ‘permanent revolution’. The rise of terrorism led to wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The so-called Arab spring of 2011 led on to disruption and unrest in many countries in the Middle East, including the civil wars in Syria and Libya, which in turn led to the rise of ISIS. These led to increasing levels of migration into Europe, causing political unrest and even violence. And much of this volatility has been caused by business. The banking crisis of 2008 saw the failure of a number of banks such as Lehman Brothers and Citigroup in the USA and Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) in the UK. It plunged the Western world into recession and saw disposable income in many countries shrink, particularly among the poorest and most vulnerable, leading to even more political unrest.
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