This chapter examines the actors involved in EU energy policymaking and illustrates the interdependence between the major players in the policy process, including formal and informal actors. Wh? are these key actors? How do they relate to one another in energy policymaking, and what instruments are available to them? Due to the divergent degrees of Europeanization in the different areas of European energy policy, the potential to influence the decision-making process differs considerably between actors. Energy policies in the EU primarily remain the responsibility of the member states and are an essential element of domestic politics, not least because any domestic economy is dependent upon reasonably priced electricity for manufacturing and private consumers need affordable home heating as well as fuel for their cars. Thus, domestic lobbying groups in modern democracies try to exert as much pressure as legally and reasonably possible on their governments in order to ensure that the actions and policy choices of that government (internal and external) reflect their interests. Governments, in turn, attempt to realize domestic interests in international negotiations and, in so doing, attempt to mediate between different levels. Putnam describes this two-level game from the perspective of government leaders as follows (1988: 434):
Across the international table sit his foreign counterparts, and at his elbow sit diplomats and other international advisors. Around the domestic table behind him sit party and parliamentary figures, spokespersons for domestic agencies, representatives of key interest groups, and the leader’s own political advisors.